An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness.
The war transformed the literary scene, eclipsing some writers and lending prestige—for the time being, at least—to those who had made the right moral and political choices. During the Occupation, Jean-Paul Sartre had continued to explore the questions of freedom and necessity, and the… Early life and writings Sartre lost his father at an early age and grew up in the home of his maternal grandfather, Carl Schweitzer, uncle of the medical missionary Albert Schweitzer and himself professor of German at the Sorbonne.
The boy, who wandered in the Luxembourg Gardens of Paris in search of playmates, was small in stature and cross-eyed. Twice this career was interrupted, once by a year of study in Berlin and the second time when Sartre was drafted in to serve in World War II.
He was made prisoner in and released a year later. This novelwritten in the form of a diary, narrates the feeling of revulsion that a certain Roquentin undergoes when confronted with the world of matter—not merely the world of other people but the very awareness of his own body.
Most probably it must be appreciated also as a most original, fiercely individualistic, antisocial piece of work, containing in its pages many of the philosophical themes that Sartre later developed. Sartre took over the phenomenological methodwhich proposes careful, unprejudiced description rather than deduction, from the German philosopher Edmund Husserl and used it with great skill in three successive publications: Consciousness is not-matter and by the same token escapes all determinism.
The message, with all the implications it contains, is a hopeful one; yet the incessant reminder that human endeavour is and remains useless makes the book tragic as well. Post-World War II work Having written his defense of individual freedom and human dignity, Sartre turned his attention to the concept of social responsibility.
For many years he had shown great concern for the poor and the disinherited of all kinds. While a teacher, he had refused to wear a tie, as if he could shed his social class with his tie and thus come closer to the worker.
Freedom now implied social responsibility. In his novels and plays Sartre began to bring his ethical message to the world at large. After the publication of the third volume, Sartre changed his mind concerning the usefulness of the novel as a medium of communication and turned back to plays.
What a writer must attempt, said Sartre, is to show man as he is. Nowhere is man more man than when he is in action, and this is exactly what drama portrays. He had already written in this medium during the war, and now one play followed another: These articles were later collected in several volumes under the title Situations.
Political activities After World War II, Sartre took an active interest in French political movements, and his leanings to the left became more pronounced. He became an outspoken admirer of the Soviet Unionalthough he did not become a member of the Communist Party.
Sartre set out to examine critically the Marxist dialectic and discovered that it was not livable in the Soviet form. Although he still believed that Marxism was the only philosophy for the current times, he conceded that it had become ossified and that, instead of adapting itself to particular situations, it compelled the particular to fit a predetermined universal.
Whatever its fundamental, general principles, Marxism must learn to recognize the existential concrete circumstances that differ from one collectivity to another and to respect the individual freedom of man. The Critique, somewhat marred by poor construction, is in fact an impressive and beautiful book, deserving of more attention than it has gained so far.Context.
Born in , Jean-Paul Sartre studied and taught philosophy throughout most of his life.
In he gained fame with the publication of his first novel, Nausea, which attempted to present his philosophical views at the time. The hero of Nausea is an antisocial recluse who, having realized the separation of human consciousness from .
Jean-Paul Sartre, (born June 21, , Paris, France—died April 15, , Paris), French novelist, playwright, and exponent of Existentialism—a philosophy acclaiming the freedom of the individual human regardbouddhiste.com was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in , but he declined it.
- Jean-Paul Sartre: Conscience to the World At the time of his death on the fifteenth of April, , at the age of seventy-four, Jean-Paul Sartre’s greatest literary and philosophical works were twenty-five years in . No Exit by Jean-Paul Sartre (Book Analysis): Detailed Summary, Analysis and Reading Guide Dec 7, by Bright Summaries.
Paperback. $ $ 6 99 Prime. Jean Paul Sartres No Exit and the Flies Jul 1, by Jean-Paul Sartre. Paperback. $ (16 used & new offers) 5 out of 5 stars 2.
Jean-Paul Sartre was a 20th century French philosopher famous as an existentialist thinker. He often used his fictional works – like The Flies – as literary laboratories to explore difficult philosophical concepts.
Sartre first made a splash in the literary world with his debut novel, Nausea, in In it, he explores some of his preliminary ideas about . Born in , Jean-Paul Sartre studied and taught philosophy throughout most of his life.
In he gained fame with the publication of his first novel, Nausea, which attempted to present his philosophical views at the time.