There they were transported to their final destination, the nearby henequen plantations. The deaths were mostly caused by unfettered smallpox epidemics. Amazon rubber boom A photo of enslaved Amazon Indians from the book "The Putumayo, the Devil's Paradise" The Amazon Rubber Boom and the associated need for a large workforce had a significant negative effect on the indigenous population across Brazil, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia. As rubber plantations grew, labor shortages increased.
This pivotal moment in the transfer of African peoples was also a transformational time during which the interrelationships among blacks, Native Americans, and whites produced the essential cultural and demographic framework that would define the region for centuries.
What distinguishes colonial Latin America from other places in the Western Hemisphere is the degree to which the black experience was defined not just by slavery but by freedom.
In the late 18th century, over a million blacks and mulattos in the region were freedmen and women, exercising a tremendously wide variety of roles in their respective societies.
Even within the framework of slavery, Latin America presents a special case. Particularly on the mainland, the forces of the market economy, the design of social hierarchies, the impact of Iberian legal codes, the influence of Catholicism, the demographic impact of Native Americans, and the presence of a substantial mixed-race population provided a context for slavery that would dictate a different course for black life than elsewhere.
This is a partial distortion of the reality of the colonial world, where colonies were organized rather differently than what we see today. However, there are a number of valid reasons for adhering to a nationalist-centered framework in the organization of this bibliography, not the least of which is being able to provide crucial background material for exploring how black populations contributed to the development of certain nation-states, as well as for understanding how blacks may have benefited from, or been hurt by, the break between the colonial and nationalist regimes.
Overall, the body of literature surveyed here speaks to several scholarly trends that have marked the 20th and early 21st centuries—the rise of the comparative slavery school, scholarship on black identity, queries into the nature of the African diaspora, assessments of the power wielded by marginalized populations, racial formation processes, creolization, and examinations of the sociocultural structures that governed colonial and early national life.
General Overviews Perhaps as a result of the overwhelming geographical expanse of the region, few single- or dual-authored works of general synthesis exist for blacks in colonial Latin America; a notable exception is Rout Some books treat wider subject matters than others.
In general, such works develop specific historiographical or theoretical arguments that intend to alter the broader research parameters of the field. The wider-reaching nature of these works necessarily compels them to incorporate case material from a variety of regions to help sustain larger arguments.
One of the key early works that precipitated tremendous research into the nature of Latin American slavery, colonial society, and race relations was TannenbaumSlave and Citizen. In terms of synthetic works, Klein and Vinson offers a comprehensive, snapshot view of the fruits of the comparative slavery school, partly established by Tannenbaum.
Among the best general surveys of the black colonial experience is Rout The text analyzes notable Atlantic Creoles to examine black agency in the Age of Revolution. These individuals, who Landers contends were not restricted by slavery or confined by geography, were highly mobile and expertly navigated the instability of the age in their attempts to achieve and define liberty.
Meanwhile, an outstanding look at the linguistic contribution of blacks is Lipski The majority of good surveys on the black presence can be found in edited collections, of which several exist in the larger literature.
By and large, these volumes feature nuanced case studies and broad-reaching introductions that help orient readers with extensive historiographical background and penetrating questions into the state of the field. Finally, a superb overview of the key literature and questions that helped launch the field of Afro-Latin American studies is Bowser Although that work is somewhat dated, the research agenda Bowser outlined is remarkable in the degree to which it has remained influential in shaping the trajectory of more modern works.
Reflections on Research Achievements and Priorities. Emphasizes slavery, the analysis of comparative legal systems, the survival of African ethnicities and culture, black assimilation, black cultural legacies, and slave resistance. Useful for quick overviews of the literature prior to and for evaluating how research has subsequently progressed.
Slavery and Race Relations in the Americas: Comparative Notes on Their Nature and Nexus. Disagrees with scholars who view modern race relations as derivative of slavery. Argues that discrimination is inherent in all multiracial societies and that the acceptance of blacks by whites is not a natural phenomenon.
African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean. Oxford University Press, Fluidity and malleability of racial identity was a defining feature of Latin American colonialism as Kristie Flannery discovers reading essays from Imperial Subjects: Race and Identity in Colonial Latin America. The first full-scale slave code in British North America was South Carolina's (), which was modeled on the colonial Barbados slave code of and was updated and expanded regularly throughout the .
Slavery strongly correlated with Europe's American colonies' need for labor, especially for the labor-intensive plantation economies of the sugar colonies in the Caribbean, operated by Great Britain, France, Spain, and the Dutch Republic.
Slavery in Latin America was practiced in precolonial times. During the Atlantic slave trade, Latin America was the main destination of millions of African people transported from Africa to French, Portuguese, and Spanish colonies. Slavery was a cornerstone of the Spanish Casta system, and its legacy is the presence of large Afro-Latino populations.
Historical Context: American Slavery in Comparative Perspective by Steven Mintz Of the 10 to 16 million Africans who survived the voyage to the New World, over one-third landed in Brazil and between 60 and 70 percent ended up in Brazil or the sugar colonies of the Caribbean.
Latin America has seen wars, dictators, famines, economic booms, foreign interventions and a whole assortment of varied calamities over the years. Each and every period of its history is crucial in some way to understanding the present-day character of the land. Even so, the Colonial Period (