In sod houses were still common, barely distinguishable from the treeless, dry prairie they were dug out of. It had been cattle country—a now bankrupt ranch once handled 30, head—but Haskell farmers also raised hogs, which is one possible clue to the origin of the crisis that would terrorize the world that year. Another clue is that the county sits on a major migratory flyway for 17 bird species, including sand hill cranes and mallards. Scientists today understand that bird influenza viruses, like human influenza viruses, can also infect hogs, and when a bird virus and a human virus infect the same pig cell, their different genes can be shuffled and exchanged like playing cards, resulting in a new, perhaps especially lethal, virus.
Accident[ edit ] Flightcircled in white, can be seen in this photo moving downward with a white streak behind the aircraft. As the JAL flight took off and began to climb, the tower controller cautioned the Flight pilots about potential wake turbulence from the The stabilizer separated from the aircraft and fell into Jamaica Bayabout one mile north of the main wreckage site.
Eight seconds later, the stall warning sounded on the cockpit voice recorder. At the moment the stabilizer separated from the aircraft, the plane pitched downwards, headed straight for Belle Harbor. As the pilots struggled to control the aircraft, it went into a flat spin.
The resulting aerodynamic loads sheared both engines from the aircraft seconds before impact. The engines landed several blocks north and east of the main wreckage site. The loss of engines cut power to the FDR at 9: The main impact location was the intersection of Newport Avenue and Beach st Street.
The timestamp shown in the picture is not the actual time of day; it had not been adjusted for Standard Time. In the months after the crash, rumors circulated that the plane had been destroyed in a terrorist plot, with a shoe bomb similar to the one found on Richard Reid.
The A took off immediately after a Japan Airlines Boeing on the same runway. The first officer attempted to stabilize the aircraft with alternating aggressive rudder inputs.
The NTSB further stated "if the first officer had stopped making additional inputs, the aircraft would have stabilized". The vertical stabilizer is connected to the fuselage with six attaching points. Each point has two sets of attachment lugs, one made of composite materialanother of aluminiumall connected by a titanium bolt; damage analysis showed that the bolts and aluminium lugs were intact, but not the composite lugs.
Tests carried out on the vertical stabilizers from the accident aircraft, and from another similar aircraft, found that the strength of the composite material had not been compromised, and the NTSB concluded that the material had failed because it had been stressed beyond its design limit.
The crash was witnessed by hundreds of people, of whom gave accounts of what they saw to the NTSB. Others stated that they saw a wing detach from the aircraft, when in fact it was the vertical stabilizer. This caused increasing sideslip angles.
The resulting hazardous sideslip angle led to extremely high aerodynamic loads that separated the vertical stabilizer.
If the first officer had stopped moving the rudder at any time before the vertical stabilizer failed, the airplane would have leveled out on its own, and the accident would have been avoided.
Contributing factors include the following: The Airbus A and later Airbus A models do not operate on a fly-by-wire flight control systembut instead use conventional mechanical flight controls.
The NTSB asserted that the A rudder control system was vulnerable to unnecessarily excessive rudder inputs. The main rationale for their position came from a report that referenced 10 incidents in which A tail fins had been stressed beyond their design limitation.
Note the control inputs made by the copilot at the 4: Aircraft tail fins are designed to withstand full rudder deflection in one direction when below maneuvering speedbut this does not guarantee that they can withstand an abrupt shift in rudder from one direction to the other.
Therefore, pilots were being trained to react more aggressively than was necessary.Haskell County, Kansas, lies in the southwest corner of the state, near Oklahoma and Colorado.
In sod houses were still common, barely distinguishable from the treeless, dry prairie they were.
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