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Oxygen consumption decreases during RR without preparatory hyperventilation or other activity indicating a low demand for oxygen during deep rest Transcendental Meditation Oxygen consumption decreases during TM without preparatory hyperventilation or other activity indicating a low demand for oxygen during deep rest Dr.
Herbert Benson and Dr.
Robert Keith Wallace Benson, H. Decreased drug abuse with Transcendental Meditation: A study of 1, subjects. Proceedings of the International Conference, ed. Lea and Febiger, Robert Keith Wallace collaborated on a study of Reduced Drug and Alcohol Use in students, while at Harvard, specifically studying the Transcendental Meditation technique.
Benson does not practice TM Dr. Wallace learned TM to directly experience Transcendental Consciousness. Wallace concluded TM is superior to the Relaxation Response.
David Orme-Johnson compares the techniques. The Relaxation Response was found to be the same as a Placebo in reducing trait anxiety in a meta-analysis of studies.
This meta-analysis compared all techniques on which trait anxiety had been studied, independent outcomes. The subject populations included in the study were college, high school, adult, psychiatric or drug abuse patients, children, adult prisoners, juvenile offenders, and the elderly.
Subjects with initially high and low levels of anxiety were also studied.
The techniques studied were the Transcendental Meditation technique, Progressive Relaxation PRBenson's Relaxation Response technique, concentration meditation, Sanskrit mantra meditation with permissive attitude, EMG biofeedback, and placebo techniques. The study found that the Transcendental Meditation program had more than twice the effect size on reducing trait anxiety as all other treatments.
All the other techniques scored no better than a placebo. The exception was Concentration Meditation, which was less effective than a placebo, indicating that concentration and control of the mind can exacerbate anxiety. This meta-analysis controlled for a number of possible confounding variables, including mental health status of the population, age, sex, experimental design, duration and hours of treatment, pretest anxiety, demand characteristics, expectation effects, experimenter attitude whether the researcher was pro- or anti-TMtype of publication, and attrition.
These controls did not alter the overall conclusions. The difference in effect sizes between the Transcendental Meditation program and other treatments was maintained even when only published studies were included, when only studies with the strongest design were included, or when only randomized studies conducted by researchers who were neutral or negative towards the TM program were included.
Of all the techniques studied, only the Transcendental Meditation technique showed a positive correlation between the reduction of anxiety and length of time that the technique had been practiced. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: There were 14 studies on the Transcendental Meditation technique and 11 on relaxation techniques.Applied and Computational Analysis.
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