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References provide support for statements and add credibility to writing. The rules for what needs a citation are an academic tradition, but are rarely stated explicitly: All direct quotations from another author must be cited.
The writer has no discretion in this matter: Failure to cite quotations is known as plagiarism, a serious academic offense that is equivalent to fraudulent representation of someone else's property as the writer's.
It is highly recommended that authors always include the indicia of a quotation [i. It is not an acceptable defense to plagiarism to claim that the author forgot to include the indicia of a quotation. All substantial information taken from another source should be cited.
There are four reasons for this: The meaning of "substantial information" in 2 is deduced on a case-by-case basis by considering the four reasons. If at least one of the reasons is appropriate or desirable, then a reference should be used. However, one does not give a reference for well-known facts e.
The appropriate test is whether any person with an undergraduate education in the appropriate specialty would immediately recognize the fact: Let us take a moment to expand on item 2b above.
If the writer doubts the truth of the information, then the writer should indicate to the reader the basis for those doubts. This can be accomplished diplomatically by making a "on the one hand Doubts can also be raised and at least partly resolved by discussing alternative interpretations.
The point is that the writer can not just serve the reader some cited material and then walk away from the mess: If a complete resolution of the facts is not possible, then the writer has an obligation to say so.
Some types of statements beg for a citation. For example, It is commonly believed that It is widely known that The conventional wisdom is that These assertions need a citation of at least one I prefer three references that support the assertion. These references may be to textbooks, which are rarely cited in professional literature in other contexts.
There are two reasons for requiring a reference to this type of statement: What kind of literature should be referenced? It is preferred that all references be archival material: There is one test for "archival": Is it retained permanently by many major technical libraries?
In general, any paper that is listed in standard databases e. In addition, patents and government reports qualify as archival materials, although they are often not considered scholarly materials.
Engineering standards, although they are important, are not archival: It is almost impossible to locate a copy of an obsolete or withdrawn standard, unless one knows an old engineer who has a copy in the filing cabinet!
For these reasons, standards are not archival documents.
Proofreading. Proofreading means examining your text carefully to find and correct typographical errors and mistakes in grammar, style, and spelling. The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products.
However, if one needs to cite to conventional good engineering practice or to cite to a performance specification, then one can cite engineering standards. In general, one should avoid citing proprietary literature manufacturer's application notes, specification sheets for products, etc. These materials are of an ephemeral nature and definitely not archival: A trade magazine is a periodical that is characterized by an abundance of 1 advertisements and 2 articles written by a employee of manufacturer X about a specific product of manufacturer X.Guidelines on How to Write an Effective White Paper.
Always write a white paper with the intention of growing a business, whether it is a small-scale business you .
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A major part of any writing assignment consists of re-writing. Write accurately.
Scientific writing must be accurate. Although writing instructors may tell you not to use the same word twice in a sentence, it's okay for scientific writing, which must be accurate. Each of these titles is available under a Creative Commons license (consult the individual text for the license specifics).
Click on the title to view the chapter abstract and a downloadable PDF of the chapter. style in technical writing. use of units with numbers. All numerical values that have dimensions must have their units specified. In general, the units must follow the numerical value every time. However, in a table of numbers, the units may be specified at the top of .
In this post, we’ll dig into the nuts and bolts of writing effective white papers. But first, be sure to grab your free white paper template (Word format). Then, use it to put all the advice in this post into practice.